Our hiking excursion start place in the bay of Haremten by windmills. We start from the boat and visit first the old windmills with view harbor, Johanniter castle, theater and island Cos. Continue through the narrow streets through the old town to the theater and mausoleum (7 wonders of the ancient world) and finish at the harbor at the mosque. About 2 hours free stroll through Bodrum and meet point at the mosque. Continue by bus to the ship
In all likelihood Halikarnassos, one of the most famous ancient cities, is in the 11th century. B.C. been founded.
Although built by Doric colonists, Halicarnassus in the 5th century BC. a typical ionic character. At that time, the city, dominated by Queen Artemisia, kept on the Persian side. In the sea war of Salamis Artemisia's ships were accidentally sunk. But this misunderstanding earned her a reward from the Persian king.
In the 5th century. B.C. The Persian satrap Mausolos Halikarnassos made the capital of Kariens and forced its subjects to settle in the three largest cities. These cities were Halicarnassus, Myndos and Theangela.
After the death of Mausolus in 353 BC. took over his sister and wife Artemisia the government and had built for her husband a tomb, which was counted among the Seven Wonders of the World ("Mausoleum of Halicarnassus").
After her death in 351 BC, her brother Idriaus, after his death in 334 BC, took over his sister and wife Ada. After the exile of Ada to Alinda, the youngest brother Pixodoros became satrap for a short time. After the capture of the city by Alexander the Great, 334 BC, but summoned this Ada back into office.
After that, the city remained until the year 129 BC. independently; then, as an insignificant settlement, in Asia, now part of Rome, continued its existence. In the 14th century. For a short time under Turkish occupation, she was 1402 AD. handed over to the Johanniter.
Bodrum was annexed in 1523 AD, after the victory of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent over Rhodes, the Ottoman Empir
Johanniter Burg in BodrumJohanniter Burg in BodrumJohanniter Burg in BodrumJohanniter Burg in Bodrum
In the north of the ancient city, on the southern slope of the hill called "necropolis" called Göktepe, is this, in the 4th century. B.C. built magnificent building. It has all the characteristics of a pre-Roman theater, and can be divided into three parts:
The sitting steps were horseshoe-shaped carved out of the slope and clad in marble. The rows of seats are bisected by a horizontal corridor. The lower part is still very well preserved. The upper part, on the other hand, was destroyed by man and nature.
The rows of seats are also divided by eleven vertical aisles into twelve parts. These corridors served to better organize the filling and emptying of the theater. With 30 rows in the lower and 25 rows in the upper area, the theater was 55 rows high. Up to 13,000 people found space there. The size and the semicircular structure support the theory of an early building.
2nd orchestra pit (Orkestra)
It is located in the middle of the theater and is more than semicircular, adapted to the seating area. The choir, which supported ancient plays with songs or choreographic inserts, was housed there. Originally, there was the place for the Annunciation, the Anatolian-dwelling god Dionysus. In the later Roman Empire, homegrown theaters were used for gladiatorial fights and games with wild animals. Here are also the remains of the partitions to protect the spectators from the fighters.
3rd stage
It is located in the south part of the theater. It closes the gap between the ends of the horseshoe-shaped auditorium. Rectangular and two-storey, it is clearly visible from all sides, with a podium-like porch in the middle of the Orkestra. In the rear wall are still the holes for the hooks of each decoration, which has been replaced to fit piece. The doors used in the stage construction were used by actors and members of the protocol. Between the stage and the auditorium there are also the spectator entrances (paradoxes). The excavation and rehabilitation of the theater was funded by the Bosav Foundation.
The "Mausoleum of Halicarnassus", known in antiquity as one of the Seven Wonders of the World, is located in the district of Bodrum. That, 350 BC. The tomb started by the Persian dying Mausolos in place of an older burial place, and finished after his death by his wife and sister Ada, has the mass 105x242 m. It stands on a terrace. Ancient writers quote the architect with Pytheos. They also claim that the magnificent reliefs that adorned this grandiose building came from the workshops of the famous stonemasons Leochares, Bryaxis, Skopas and Timotheos.
The foundation of the tomb was made of native carved ashlars and was about 5 m high. In the middle was a deep pit. According to ancient sources, the building was about 50 m high; the roof area connected by a staircase to the lower part closed all around with an arcade of 35 columns (9x11). The statues of Mausolus and Artemisia sat in a four-in-hand carriage on the highest point of the 24-story roof. On the lowest level of the roof were lion statues as guardians. Finally, between the columns and statues, was the famous Amazons frieze. The mausoleum, built entirely of green stone, was clad on the outside with marble and bluish limestone.
The tomb, long defying all human and natural influences, finally fell to an earthquake that shattered the whole of Western Anatolia, in 1304 AD. to the victim.
The pieces found during excavations by Lord Stratford in 1846, and Newton's 185762, were brought from Newton to England, along with the parts used by the Hospitallers in the construction of the castle. However, two original pieces of the Amazon frieze can still be seen in the museum, which is located on the site of the former mausoleum.
This museum became, with the financial and scientific assistance Prof. dr. Kristian Jeppesens of the Danish University Aarhus, built there, and opened in 1982 for the visitor traffic. Thanks to the excavations carried out under his direction in 196672, important archaeological findings were made.
In the covered part of the museum are all, Mausolos and his time related finds, arranged according to scientific knowledge. In the half-open part, a plaster cast of the Amazonian frieze in the British Museum can be seen. There are also, from an architectural point of view, important finds, issued.
For the next few years a complete revision of the museum is planned. As a result of this project, a 1: 1 copy of the exhibits in the British Museum will also be on display.
Mausoleum in Bodrum in der Geschichte